Key words: economic crisis, sende land, landowner, respons and strategy
By: Tiwuk Kusuma Hastuti and Retno Kusumawiranti
The economic crisis has encouraged the emerging of various forms of community’s response. The responses and the adaptation strategies of the rural community differ from one region to another region. This has to do with the available abilities and resources. Some of the responses to deal with the constraints due to the economic crisis, particularly the fulfillment of subsistence needs are selling properties, mortgaging assets (land, gold, furniture, home appliances, etc.), migrating, begging, etc. The economic crisis causes one group of community to lose opportunity, but creates another opportunity to other group. As a result, there is a group which successfully dominates the rural resources particularly the land and other assets sold by the poor one. In the Special Region of Yogyakarta, the poor community not only sells but also mortgages their assets. The pawnshops become one of popular “safety valve” institutions. Every loan requested should be accompanied with land mortgage. This becomes the local wisdom which becomes an important social capital for the life survival of the rural community, which is necessary to be explored and developed. When the state institutions are not able to help the poor community, family and custom institutions become one of important “safety valve”.
The objectives of the research are: (1) to give a new understanding mode on the potential and ability of the rural community to encounter the crisis or difficulty in life by developing adaptation strategies, which are adjusted to the current conditions/challenges; (2) to offer alternative perspectives on understanding the problems encountered by the rural community, the life survival strategies, and the rural institutions; Alle, die es gern etwas vorsichtiger angehen lassen, konnen bei bwin gratis Roulette mit der “play for fun” Funktion versuchen. (3) to produce a model of autonomous village development by giving more attentions on the existence of rural institutions, which are initiated by the grassroots
Land and its ownership pattern is a crucial factor for most people who live in village. Both can affect the life development of villager whether it is in social, economic or politic aspect as well. That is the reason why landowner wants to keep their land foor good, if it is possible. It prevails even when the landowner faces the difficult finen situation.
Sende transaction happens when the landowner needs money but he still want to possess his land. By doing the transaction, the landowner will not give his social status away. He can overcome the difficult finen situation and at the same time still get respect as the owner the land even the land is sustainably sold. Sende offers the landowner secure feeling that he is able to redeem his land at any time. Moreover, the landowner still has the earning from the land by cultivating it as casual worker or hired farmer. Thus, the landowner feels as the farmer still, for he takes the responsibility in cultivating the land. He also takes a part in village decision making process. It is because de jure he is the landowner although de facto he does not possess it.
There are some reasons why the financier is willing to buy land through sende transaction. First is that the financier has known the seller well. Second is the financier’s conviction that his money will be returned fully. The financier will also receive some advantages such as the make use of land which will increase the financier”s income. Even when the harvest is not good, he will not suffer from a loss because he will receive his money back fully. The belief in society that the land ownership will heighthen the social status is the other reason why the financier tries hard to possess the land. Eventhough it is for temporary.
Further, sende also offers indirect advantages like the make use of cattle, labour and time. The number of farmer (as financier) who are more successful through sende in developing their cultivation are quite a lot. It is because the price for pawn land is cheaper. The financier will not get the land as wide as the land he buy through sende with the same price. Thus, the financier does not need great capital to buy the land which allow him to support management expenses more intensively.